Climate Effects on Arctic Food Resources: Retrospective Analysis of Rate of Advancement of Invertebrate Phenology

Metadata Updated: November 12, 2020

Temperatures are warming fastest at high latitudes and annual temperatures have increased by 2-3˚ C in the Arctic over the second half of the 20th century. Shorebirds respond to cues on their overwintering grounds to initiate long migrations to nesting sites throughout the Arctic. Climate-driven changes in snowmelt and temperature, which drive invertebrate emergence, may lead to a lack of synchrony between the timing of shorebird nesting and the availability of invertebrate prey essential for egg formation and subsequent chick survival. We modeled the biomass of invertebrates captured in modified Malaise traps as a function of accumulated temperature and weather variables for eight North American research camps in the Arctic Shorebird Demographic Network over the years 2010-2012. Models were based on data from the closest weather station and used to hindcast invertebrate biomass for the last ~60 years. From the hindcasted invertebrate data we calculated three measures of invertebrate phenology: the first day with invertebrate biomass above 10 mg; the number of days in May, June, and July with invertebrate biomass above 10 mg; and the date of peak invertebrate biomass. The 10-mg threshold was based on literature indicating it provided sufficient daily prey biomass to support normal shorebird chick growth. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis using 5, 15, and 20 mg showed that our results were robust to variation in this threshold. Each response was regressed against year to investigate changes over time. Changes in hindcasted invertebrate phenology were most conspicuous at the northernmost camps and were on the order of 1 to 3 days per decade. At Barrow, Ikpikpuk, and MacKenzie Delta, the timing of the first day with invertebrate biomass above 10 mg has advanced by 2 to 2.5 days per decade. At Barrow and Ikpikpuk, the number of days with invertebrate biomass above 10 mg has increased by 1.5 to 2 days per decade. The timing of peak invertebrate biomass has advanced at Ikpikpuk and Cape Krusenstern by 1 to 1.5 days per decade. Although our results suggest that seasonal prey availability for arctic shorebirds is advancing, the potential for trophic mismatch is most likely at the northernmost sites we evaluated, although it may be mitigated by similar advances in shorebird migration and nesting as reported from other Arctic sites.

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Metadata Date 2019-09-09T00:24:31-08:00
Metadata Created Date November 12, 2020
Metadata Updated Date November 12, 2020
Reference Date(s) April 30, 2017 (released)
Frequency Of Update null

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Harvested from DOI Open Data

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Resource Type Report
Metadata Date 2019-09-09T00:24:31-08:00
Metadata Created Date November 12, 2020
Metadata Updated Date November 12, 2020
Reference Date(s) April 30, 2017 (released)
Responsible Party (Point of Contact); Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (Point of Contact, Publisher)
Contact Email
Guid d423f314-cc28-4844-9f87-d6fb010712d0
Access Constraints
Bbox East Long -77.175753331771
Bbox North Lat 73.940460580903
Bbox South Lat 57.85893780079
Bbox West Long -167.81016218763
Coupled Resource
Frequency Of Update null
Licence While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, the Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. The Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty., null
Metadata Language
Metadata Type geospatial
Progress completed
Spatial Data Service Type
Spatial Reference System
Spatial Harvester True
Temporal Extent Begin 2011-06-01T00:00:00
Temporal Extent End 2017-04-30T00:00:00

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