Metadata Updated: November 12, 2020

The LANDFIRE fuel data describe the composition and characteristics of both surface fuel and canopy fuel. Specific products include fire behavior fuel models, canopy bulk density (CBD), canopy base height (CBH), canopy cover (CC), canopy height (CH), fuel characterization classification system (FCCS), and fuel loading models (FLMs). These data may be implemented within models to predict the behavior and effects of wildland fire. These data are useful for strategic fuel treatment prioritization and tactical assessment of fire behavior and effects. DATA SUMMARY: The LANDFIRE fuel loading model (FLM) classification system is based on unique sets of fuel characteristics that simplify the input of fuel loadings into fire effects models. FLMs can be used to simulate smoke emissions and soil heating in fuelbeds across the contiguous United States. A fuelbed is defined as all combustible material below two meters (six feet) and above mineral soil. These fuels are commonly referred to as surface fuels and include live and dead herbaceous and shrub material, down woody material, duff, and litter. Fire behavior and fire effects are the result of the combustion process of the fuels. The information that is needed to classify fuelbeds to simulate fire behavior and fire effects is different. The size and spatial distribution of smaller diameter combustible material, for example, is important to fire behavior while fire effects are dependent on the intensity and duration of combustion of all fuels. This generalization suggests that a fuels classification system that emphasizes significant difference in fire behavior will not be the same as a classification that identifies differences in fire effects. The FLMs developed here were designed to uniquely identify significant differences in two fire effects: maximum surface soil heating and total PM2.5 emissions. FLMs incorporate the inherent variability of fuel loading across and within fuel components and the resolution of a fire effects prediction model at the plot scale. The classes were developed using a multiple step process where maximum soil surface heating and total PM2.5 emissions were first simulated in FOFEM for a large set of surface fuelbeds sampled across the contiguous United States. The simulated effects were then grouped into ten Effects Groups using a statistical clustering routine. Each Effects Group describes a unique range of soil heating and emissions. Finally, classification tree analysis was used to predict duff, litter, fine woody debris (FWD) and log load that resulted in the soil heating and emissions seen in each of the Effects Groups. These fuel classes are called Fuel Loading Models. Unlike other fuel classifications, the FLMs were designed so they can be easily keyed in the field from fuel load estimates. This makes them useful as map units for estimating fire effects across multiple spatial scales. Moreover, the classification methods can be used to build finer resolution fuel classifications for smaller areas using local data. Field plot data contributed either directly or indirectly to this data product. Go to for more information regarding contributors of field plot data. REFRESH 2001 (lf_1.0.5): Imagery used in LANDFIRE National covered a span of years, and because of this, several large wildland fires are not represented in the data. LANDFIRE circa 2001 ensures wildland fires through 2001 are represented. Additional changes found in Refresh 2001 include updating aspects of the following: riparian and wetlands areas, aggregating overlapping sparse and wetland existing vegetation types, and adjusting the extent of barren and water land cover types.

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License: No license information was provided. If this work was prepared by an officer or employee of the United States government as part of that person's official duties it is considered a U.S. Government Work.

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Metadata Date May 10, 2011
Metadata Created Date November 12, 2020
Metadata Updated Date November 12, 2020
Reference Date(s) January 1, 2010 (publication)
Frequency Of Update unknown

Metadata Source

Harvested from DOI Open Data

Additional Metadata

Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Date May 10, 2011
Metadata Created Date November 12, 2020
Metadata Updated Date November 12, 2020
Reference Date(s) January 1, 2010 (publication)
Responsible Party Wildland Fire Science, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey (Point of Contact)
Contact Email
Access Constraints Use Constraints: Although LANDFIRE products are delivered as 30-meter pixels, they should not be used at the individual pixel level or on small groups of pixels. LANDFIRE products were designed to support 1) national (all states) strategic planning, 2) regional (single large states or groups of smaller states), and 3) strategic/tactical planning for large sub-regional landscapes and Fire Management Units (FMUs) (such as significant portions of states or multiple federal administrative entities). The applicability of LANDFIRE products to support fire and land management planning on smaller areas will vary by product, location, and specific use. Further investigation by local and regional experts should be conducted to inform decisions regarding local applicability. However, it is the responsibility of the local user, using LANDFIRE metadata and local knowledge, to determine if and/or how LANDFIRE can be used for particular areas of interest. LANDFIRE products are not intended to replace local products, but rather serve as a back-up by providing wall-to-wall cross-boundary products. It is the responsibility of the user to be familiar with the value, assumptions, and limitations of LANDFIRE products. Managers and planners must evaluate LANDFIRE data according to the scale and requirements specific to their needs., Access Constraints: None
Bbox East Long -138.75803269007818
Bbox North Lat 71.14926911648406
Bbox South Lat 50.824773478534226
Bbox West Long -179.8299135763675
Coupled Resource
Frequency Of Update unknown
Licence This product is reproduced from geospatial information prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and USGS EROS. By removing the contents of this package or taking receipt of these files via electronic file transfer methods, you understand that the data stored on this media is in draft condition. Represented features may not be in an accurate geographic location. The Forest Service and USGS EROS make no expressed or implied warranty, including warranty of merchantability and fitness, with respect to the character, function, or capabilities of the data or their appropriateness for any user's purposes. The Forest Service and USGS EROS reserve the right to correct, update, modify, or replace this geospatial information without notification.
Metadata Language
Metadata Type geospatial
Progress completed
Spatial Data Service Type
Spatial Reference System
Spatial Harvester True

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